Delivering aerospace technology for an increasingly electric future
Rob Watson Director Rolls-Royce Electrical UK
This presentation discusses the Rolls-Royce aerospace journey towards hybrid-electric aircraft and the associated electric-based power and propulsion systems. The electrical enablers required to deliver a more electric future will be presented. The use of key enabler technology demonstrators plays an important role in validating high-power electrical systems. The presentation will discuss the key enabler technologies being developed by Rolls-Royce, and the corresponding demonstrators being used to validate the technology.
Emission free flight: Vision or reality?
Prof Josef Kallo Head of energy systems integration Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) GERMANY
Exact description of the presentation will be added shortly
Exact presentation title to be confirmed
Glenn Llewellyn General manager, electrification - corporate technology office Airbus FRANCE
Energy storage for electrified aircraft
Dr Ajay Misra Deputy director, research and engineering directorate NASA Glenn Research Center USA
The presentation will review energy storage options (including batteries, fuel cells, supercapacitors, flow batteries) for electrified aircraft. It will describe what is possible with current batteries and fuel cells and how SOA batteries can influence niche markets. Energy storage requirements for several classes of aircraft will be reviewed. Projections on advances in energy storage systems will be made based on current worldwide activities. Operational and integration challenges for application of energy storage systems in electrified aircraft will be discussed. Specific research and development requirements for electrified aircraft will be highlighted.
An e-volution in electric and hybrid boundary layer ingestion
Simon Taylor Chief engineer GKN Aerospace NETHERLANDS
The performance of a hybrid-electric boundary layer ingesting (BLI) propulsion system is appraised and discussed in the context of new large aircraft and the Fokker 100 Demonstrator programme. This includes a holistic evaluation of operation and performance benefits afforded by this novel configuration, which is potentially applicable for application in the next generation of CS25 aircraft. We will also consider the performance and status of the e-volution Fokker 100 demonstrator programme, including the steps that have been made to date, and an explanation of some of the key technologies necessary and the potential path to the future.
Turbine and AUX systems 14:00 - 16:00
Ceramic matrix composites taking flight beyond GE Aviation
Michael Peretti Director, advanced programmes GE Aviation USA
GE Aviation has been at the forefront of developing advanced materials for turbine applications, including the recent certification of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) on the LEAP engine. GE’s CMC material options include oxide and SiC matrix composite material systems, and a vertical supply chain is being established. Key aspects of CMC technology maturation and industrialisation at GE Aviation will be discussed in this paper, including component testing, data analytics, process modelling, manufacturing scale-up and production readiness.
General aviation 2025 – a supercomputer on wings
Rene Nardi Technical director Inotech LLC USA
The convergence of technologies, mainly electric propulsion and information technology, is shaping the future of the automotive industry, and general aviation may be the first segment of the aeronautical industry to benefit from similar effects. However, there is still a considerable gap between the promises of designers and the expectations of the early adopters of the amazing new possibilities opened by the combination of electrical propulsion, information technology and artificial intelligence. This paper describes some of the challenges and opportunities for application on a four/five-seat general aviation aircraft to enter service by 2025.
Digital displacement: hydraulic power for the digital age
Dr Niall Caldwell Managing director Artemis Intelligent Power Ltd UK
The energy requirements of most aircraft applications mean that combustion engines are the only practical option. In the steady state, 'hybrid-electric' propulsion is essentially an infinitely variable mechanical transmission. Elsewhere, hydrostatics are routinely used for such purposes, offering high power density and low cost. However, poor efficiency and controllability are major drawbacks.
Digital-displacement hydraulic machines offer a radical new approach, which is digital from the ground up. Now hydrostatic transmissions can be built with efficiency and control comparable to hybrid-electric. This enables a new approach to increase the range and payload of multi-rotor UAVs, as well as to existing aircraft hydraulic systems.
Assessment of a rotorcraft thermo-electric powerplant using Simcenter Amesim
Dr Olivier Broca Product line manager aeronautics space and defence Siemens Industry Software FRANCE
Simulation platforms for enabling dynamic modelling of the powerplant, drivetrain and all power requirements of a vehicle are necessary to achieve an accurate representation of vehicle performance and dynamic response when developing simulation for certification capabilities. The assessment of an integrated gas-turbine-based rotorcraft thermo-electric powerplant will be presented. The modelling, simulation and assessment are done utilising the Simcenter Amesim system simulation platform, which is widely used in the aeronautics and space industries. The new Simcenter Amesim library dedicated to the modelling of gas turbine engines is used in conjunction with the platform’s extended collection of well-established aerospace libraries.
New concepts and trials 14:00 - 18:00
Novel electric drive systems for aircraft electric and hybrid propulsion
Dr Evgeni Ganev Chief engineer Honeywell Aerospace USA
The challenging needs for Electric Drive Systems applicable to electric and hybrid propulsion for aircraft are discussed. Novel system architectures are considered and advantages quantified in line of the major components like electric rotating machines, motor controllers and speed reduction elements. Criterion for selection is presented keeping in mind interfaces, cooling options, lubrication, power distribution buses, power quality, EMI and partial discharge events. Different level of system and components integrations are considered as a major driver to achieve the best power densities. Results from trade studies will be presented.
Within GKN a contest is being held to design an AAV according to a limited number of op level requirements: 100kg of payload, 120km/h speed, range of 100km, VTOL. The winning concept will be built in the first half of 2019 and will fly in June 2019. As one of the 11 participating teams, we have added the requirement for the AAV to be sustainable using a propulsion technology that is scalable to larger aircraft. The announcement of the competition GKN is organising will follow within the next two months.
Evaluating aircraft with electric and hybrid propulsion
Dieter Scholz Lecturer Hamburg University of Applied Sciences GERMANY
Hybrid-electric propulsion is considered for general aviation aircraft and passenger aircraft. Innovative propulsion principles (electric, electric-hybrid and hydraulic-hybrid) are compared with conventional propulsion principles. Three types of evaluations are considered (with a focus on aviation): economic evaluations (DOC); environmental evaluations – final energy, primary energy, greenhouse gas emissions (based on CO2 or equivalent CO2 - RF, GWP, SGTP with altitude dependent forcing factor), lifecycle analysis (LCA); social evaluation – only noise pollution is considered based on engine noise, aerodynamic noise, noise from aircraft systems, or with social LCA.
Electrification – partner in the increase in aerodynamic and propulsive efficiency
Nelson Cámara Aguiar Lead engineer for efficiency improvement solutions Altran SPAIN
The presentation will review the synergies between high-power electrification and technologies to increase aerodynamic and propulsion efficiency in commercial aircraft of current and future generations, plus active lift systems, flow technologies for induced drag reduction and BLI thrusters. It will also discuss the research, advances and capacities of Altran R&D Spain to measure the benefits, identify possible operational problems, and propose and develop solutions.
What have we learned from MEA enabling hybrid-electric propulsion?
Cristian Anghel Technology fellow Honeywell International Inc USA
This presentation will address the state-of-the-art more-electric aircraft (MEA) technologies that enable hybrid-electric propulsion (HEP) and the new technologies needed. Some of the goals of HEP, such as driving power densities higher while reducing weight/cost and maintaining safety/redundancy entail challenges that have been solved to a certain extent in MEA. Other ambitious HEP goals, such as simultaneously driving overall system efficiencies and power densities as high as possible are very challenging and are being addressed by new technologies. Developing, demonstrating and integrating these technologies remain some of the focus areas for the future.
Regional STOL aircraft with DEPS technical progress
Andrey Dunaevsky Programme manager Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI) RUSSIA
Semyon Mikhalyov Research officer TsAGI RUSSIA
TsAGI's aerospace foresight department has been investigating an STOL regional aircraft with distributed electric propulsion system. The presentation describes the recent technical progress achieved in TsAGI's STOL aircraft configuration: mainly system aspects of preliminary design, distributed propulsion system definition and ground facility experiments.
Recent developments in Safran's roadmap towards more-electric propulsion
Pierre-Alain Lambert Head, energy and propulsion, Safran Tech R&T Center Safran FRANCE
The presentation will cover an overview of Safran's recent developments and results in the field of hybrid-electric propulsion concepts, namely VTOL propulsion architectures, parallel hybridisation for gas turbines, and longer-term high-power turbo-electric concepts. Key technology requirements associated with these concepts will be discussed, and several theoretical and experimental results will be presented.
Certification 16:30 - 18:00
Certification of lithium batteries as key enablers for electric aeroplanes
Carlos Javier Munoz Garcia New electrical technologies expert European Aviation Safety Agency GERMANY
The lithium battery is one of the key enablers for electric aeroplanes. As with any relatively new technology, there is limited experience of its use as an energy storage device in electric/hybrid aerial vehicles. Lithium batteries have specific failures, and operational and maintenance characteristics that differ from conventional batteries currently covered by normative aviation certification. Therefore, appropriate new certification materials and qualification standards have been established to ensure that these battery installations do not have hazardous or unreliable design characteristics. The presentation will give an overview of the certification materials and qualification standards used in the certification of propulsion rechargeable lithium batteries.
A certification basis for electric VTOL aircraft
Dr Lionel Tauszig Senior PCM - continuing airworthiness rotorcraft European Aviation Safety Agency GERMANY
Numerous electric and hybrid VTOL aircraft are under development and will require aviation authorities to identify suitable certification bases. Unique aspects to be addressed include electric or hybrid propulsion, compound configurations, distributed propulsion, advanced flight controls and new operational environments such as urban air transportation. A proposed certification basis has been developed based on high-level requirements, similar to the Normal, Utility, Aerobatic and Commuter Aeroplanes Certification Specification CS-23, complemented by requirements derived from the Rotorcraft Certification Specifications CS-27/29 and consensus standards. Key points of the certification basis will be presented.
On the certification of high-capacity battery systems
Robert Hess Systems engineering manager BAE Systems USA
Traditional, small-capacity aircraft batteries have a limited number of system functions. The number of functional hazards related to such systems is much smaller than for complex systems. However, complex, high-capacity electric aircraft battery systems have a substantially greater number of critical functions. To understand the challenges associated with certifying such systems, a reference architecture for a high-capacity battery system for an electric aircraft is presented and analysed. Key details required for certification, such as the use of simple versus complex hardware, the need for independent processing channels, software/firmware certification, and aspects of system partitioning are described.
Day 2: Friday 9 November
Overall propulsion systems 09:00 - 16:00
ECO-150-300: a turbo-electric distributed propulsion transport for 2035
Benjamin Schiltgen VP of finance/aerospace engineer Empirical Systems Aerospace Inc USA
Upon the recent conclusion of a NASA Phase II SBIR, the latest and most advanced version of the 2035-EIS turbo-electric distributed propulsion airline transport, ECO-150-300, showed significant improvement over an equivalent conventional configuration of similar technology maturation levels. Several of the mid-term energy and emission metric goals set by NASA can therefore be met by utilising decoupled energy management and the embedded split-wing concept. This presentation will lay out the latest ECO-150-300 results and the conventional configuration concept study developed for metric evaluation and baseline comparison.
Assessment of alternative architectures for electrifying a regional turboprop transport aircraft
Alexander Schneegans Managing partner PACE Aerospace Engineering & Information Technology GmbH GERMANY
The software platform for the design of aircraft with hybrid-electric propulsion systems as presented during the 2017 symposium has undergone several evolutions to cover a wider range of propulsive configurations and investigate more complex operational scenarios. To this end, the tool offers new propulsion models, including support for parallel architectures, where electric engines boost a turboprop unit during specific flight phases. This module is complemented by the capability to simulate the charging process of batteries during flight, using both electric power generated by burning fossil fuel or through energy harvesting during descent. Choosing a regional turboprop transport aircraft as a baseline, different studies are carried out to determine the maximum number of passengers for a 100 NM nominal mission with pure-electric propulsion and trading passengers against batteries, while respecting volumetric limitations given through the wing structure. A second study assesses the potential gains obtained through a parallel architecture, e.g. through downsizing of the thermal engine and a resizing of the wing due to reduced need for fuel capacity as well as through trading battery weight against the fuel burn required to recharge the battery during flight.
Hybrid propulsion system concept for commuter passenger airliners
Dr Anton Varyukhin Head of department Central Institute of Aviation Motors RUSSIA
The paper presents a study of the conceptual design of a hybrid propulsion system for a 9-19-passenger-capacity commuter airliner. The propulsion system consists of two propellers directly driven by two electric motors with maximum power of 550kW each. The electric power is provided by a power unit that includes batteries and one or two gas turbine generators. At take-off the electric motors are supplied by batteries and generators simultaneously. At cruise flight they are supplied only by generators. Modelling shows that the fuel efficiency of the one-generator system increases by 9-10%, which corresponds to a 16% range increase compared with turboprop propulsion.
The role of power systems design in hybrid-electric aircraft
Peter Malkin Strategic research advisor Newcastle University UK
Although considerable attention is being given to lightweight and efficient electrical machine and drive design for HEA propulsion, little research activity has thus far been dedicated to the design of the power systems. It is important to understand that the electrical power system in HEA plays a much more important role than in the past, when aircraft systems design has been of secondary importance in that the aircraft was designed initially and then usually the systems were made to fit in with the existing design. The presentation will describe the design approach and detail recent results.
Computational support for comparing future electric and hybrid aircraft architectures
Dr Jonathan Menu Research engineer Siemens Industry Software NV BELGIUM
Increased electrification and hybridisation take aircraft design to the next level of complexity. Simulation enables system architects to assess performance and reliability figures for new designs, but the overall design space is too large to evaluate all relevant options in a traditional way. Computational design synthesis is a new approach that supports the designer by automatically generating new concepts, which can automatically be configured for further evaluation. We present a new software tool for this, and demonstrate its usage on a multi-redundancy electrical propulsion system for aircraft, analysing weight, performance and reliability.
A supercritical CO2 closed-cycle hybrid propulsion system
William Tahil Research director Meridian International Research FRANCE
Hybrid-electric propulsion systems are now under development. Proposed concepts still use an open cycle despite the advantages of closed cycles. The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) closed-cycle turbine is being developed by the electrical power-generating industry. A 50% improvement in thermal to electric power conversion efficiency is viewed as realistically achievable. Supercritical CO2 exhibits extremely high power density, enabling an engine core to be packaged in a significantly smaller volume of lower weight. This paper presents a concept for a supercritical CO2 closed-cycle turbine generator propulsion system. SFC in the order of 0.34 lb/lbf/hr can be envisaged.
TRADE: Turbo electRic Aircraft Design Environment
Dr Michael Sielemann Aerospace industry director Modelon SWEDEN
The amount of air travel being undertaken today calls for improvements in fuel efficiency and emissions. Boosted turbofan and turbo-electric propulsion are potential solutions. Conventional engineering works poorly for such solutions, as they rely on statistical data and classic problem break-downs. This presentation summarises the results of the Turbo electRic Aircraft Design Environment (TRADE) project, which develops a physics-based simulation/optimisation platform with a focus on subsystems (electrical, gas turbine, thermal) and advanced aircraft structures that interfaces with existing frameworks of Clean Sky 2 partners. Outline: Technical platform based on open standards OpenMDAO, Modelica, FMI; model integration process; integration challenges; first results.
Electric aircraft range extender hybrid-electric motorcycle
Richard Glassock Research fellow The University of Nottingham Institute for Aerospace Technology UK
This presentation reports on the progress of the RExMoto hybrid gas/electric motorcycle capable of performing flight range extender functionality for an electric-propulsion-equipped aircraft. It has been prototyped to TRL3 (laboratory-scale proof of concept). The vehicle gives the option of an easily fitted and removable auxiliary power unit in a road-rideable package. Minimal modifications to the aircraft will be required, allowing it to be used as a ‘normal’ all-electric type when long range is not required. RExMoto provides a direct intermodal transport solution that enables D2D (door to door) transport, while enhancing low-emission transport connectivity.
Requirements for electrical power supply system elements for electric aircraft
Sergey Khalyutin CEO LLC Experimental laboratory NaukaSoft RUSSIA
Development of electric-power-driven aircraft is the strongest trend in modern aircraft development. Nevertheless, currently available electrical systems, components and technologies are insufficient for the design of fully electric aircraft. Provided examples of electric power system design apply to an airline category passenger aircraft. Electrical system values resulting from this design are used to identify the performance requirements for electrical system, parts and components that are necessary for fully electric-power-driven aircraft.
Electric aviation: hype or reality?
Dr Arvind Gangoli Rao Associate professor Delft University of Technology NETHERLANDS
The transportation sector is going through some major changes, and electric cars are spearheading this revolution. Researchers and engineers are trying to electrify aviation; for small aircraft and personal air vehicles, electric flight will bring many benefits. However, due to the low energy density of batteries, it is unlikely that large passenger aircraft will fly electrically. The presentation will touch on the opportunities and challenges in making civil aviation electric.
Energy: Source and transmission 09:00 - 12:30
Electrical behaviour of composite material used in hybrid-electric aerospace
Dr Jameel Khan Electrical materials engineer Rolls-Royce UK
The aerospace industry is currently in a period of transition to hybrid-electric aircraft. A fundamental motivation for this change is weight/fuel and commensurate emissions savings. Composite materials are revolutionising the industry, with over 50% of the future aircraft comprised of composites. Composites are well understood mechanically, but with electrification, the electrical behaviour is a key research area. This paper examines the electromagnetic design of carbon composites subjected to AC fields. Exploiting electromagnetic properties offers opportunities for de-icing, ground plane, EM shielding and in-situ repair. This supports a range of aerospace applications: gas turbine components, aircraft structures and weight-optimised electric machine topologies.
New carbon-fibre-reinforced materials for an electrically driven aircraft
Simon Bard Scientific assistant University of Bayreuth GERMANY
The aim of this publicly funded project is – together with Airbus and Siemens – to develop new materials for electrically driven aircraft. The focus lies particularly on the thermal and electric conductivity of the carbon-fibre-reinforced materials. The prepreg line at the department offers the possibility to use modified matrices and fibres to achieve the specifications of the project. Different types of fibres including PAN and pitch-based and copper- and nickel-coated fibres have been used to enhance the thermal conductivity along with graphite and aluminium-modified epoxy matrix materials.
Powertrain development for electrical aircraft beyond the limitations of batteries
Roel van Benthem R&D manager energy systems and thermal control Netherlands Aerospace Centre NETHERLANDS
For the development of (hybrid) electric aircraft, energy storage in batteries clearly imposes limiting factors on the flight duration and range due to the batteries’ low specific energy. To investigate alternative technologies for the development of (hybrid) electric powertrains, case studies have been conducted at the Netherlands Aerospace Centre (NLR) involving various combinations of (hybrid) electric propulsion and fuel cell (FC) energy storage systems. These studies indicate that in some cases the range and flight duration of (hybrid) electric aircraft can be extended beyond the limitations of batteries.
Preliminary study of sodium water reaction for electrical propulsion
Víctor Manuel de Frutos Systems engineer Airbus DS SPAIN
The source of energy on board is the biggest challenge for new methods of propulsion because of the high energy density of the Jet A-1 (around 12 kWh/kg). The most extended alternative to Jet A-1 is the use of batteries as a source of energy for electrical propulsion. Although this solution is simple, the drawback is the battery energy density: below 0.2kWh/kg. Another alternative is the use of hydrogen in a fuel cell. Regarding hydrogen generation, the energy density capability of the enhanced sodium water reaction could be between 2 and 4kWh/kg, which could enable electrical propulsion.
Hybrid aerospace powertrains: a rotorcraft case study
Phil Mellor Professor of electrical engineering University of Bristol UK
Julian Booker Professor of mechanical design engineering University of Bristol UK
The paper will present a novel fault-tolerant electrical power generation system architecture for use in the hybrid-electric propulsion of rotorcraft, rated 270V DC and 1,000A. The system is based around multiple redundant high-speed permanent-magnet electrical machines to realise a high-efficiency, low-weight solution, meeting the application's integrity requirement. The presentation will offer an overview of the holistic approach taken to the electromechanical design of this system, with emphasis on the design of the rotor containment and loss/thermal behaviour. The system's performance attributes will be presented, backed by test results taken from a full-scale prototype generator.
Innovative thermal conductivity switching material to enhance battery module/pack safety
Dr Tomohiro Kawai Principal scientist Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation JAPAN
With the development and use of higher energy-density lithium-ion batteries, the prevention of thermal runaway propagation between cells inside the battery module/pack has become an important challenge for enhancing safety. Mitsubishi Chemical has developed a new spacer material with switching function of heat transfer characteristics. By using the spacer, it is possible to not only suppress the occurrence of propagation but also achieve efficient heat dissipation and reduction of size and weight of the battery pack. We will introduce the potential contribution to the heat management design of the battery module/pack by thermal simulation.
Longevity of lithium-ion batteries
Dr Matthias Vetter Head of department - electrical energy storage Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE GERMANY
Lithium-ion batteries are used in a wide variety of transport applications, including the automotive, maritime and aerospace sectors. In all these sectors, ageing on a cell and system level is a critical topic for several reasons, including lifetime, safety, reliability and performance as well as the corresponding warranties. Therefore an in-depth understanding of the ageing (calendric, cyclic) mechanisms is crucial for selecting appropriate cells, and developing optimised packs and advanced operating control strategies to enable a prolonged lifetime of the storage systems on a safe and reliable basis in the specific applications.
Electric motors and power electronics 14:00 - 16:30
ATI INSIGHT – electrical power systems
Mark Scully Head of technology - advanced systems and propulsion Aerospace Technology Institute UK
This presentation will deliver the Aerospace Technology Institute's 2018 INSIGHT paper on electrical power systems. This includes a review of technology requirements in electrical power systems for aerospace electrification. The paper also explains how key technologies will be required to deliver the disruptive trends in electric and hybrid propulsion. The paper includes roadmaps for key aerospace electrical power systems technologies and charts a future research path.
Designing and testing electrical machines – challenges for helicopter environments
Dr Mircea Popescu Chief technology officer Motor Design Ltd UK
E-mobility and electrification application to helicopters require high-torque-density electrical machines, capable of operating in demanding environments. In certain cases, the fault-tolerant performance is imposed, while in other scenarios, the electrical machine is expected to fail completely for safety of the aircraft. This presentation takes a look at a few solutions for electrical machines with and without rare earth magnets, which are suitable to generate electrical power or mechanical torque in various subsystems of the helicopters. Theoretical models and manufacturing aspects are illustrated.
Power electronic systems of highest power density
Florian Hilpert Group leader aviation electronics Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Systems and Device Technology IISB GERMANY
Over the last decade, new technologies in power electronics, such as WBG devices, enabled the development of systems with highest power densities. The presentation will focus on latest research prototype systems developed mainly for automotive applications to illustrate the advantages of new WBG technologies, together with advanced system design like low inductive module packaging. The development of systems with highest volumetric power densities has also reduced the weight of the power electronics, enabling the development of lightweight systems with high gravimetric power densities. An outlook on ongoing research in aviation power electronic applications will be given.
Design of superconducting AC propulsion motors for hybrid-electric aerospace
A C Smith Professor University of Manchester UK
The aerospace industry has ambitious emissions and noise reduction targets that have led to some radical proposals for future aerospace transportation technologies. One of the disruptive technologies identified is the use of hybrid-electric propulsion. Fully superconducting machines have the potential to deliver the step-change in specific torque, power and efficiency capabilities required for large civil transport aircraft applications. This presentation will look at the key design issues for AC fully superconducting machines for an aerospace distributed fan motor in relation to the current aerospace targets for efficiency and power densities. It will also look forward at future developments.
Please Note: This conference programme may be subject to change